In line with the Dunman High School’s vision “The premier school of Leaders of Honour”, the science programme aims to prepare all Dunmanians to have the presence of scientific mind and attitude that will enable them to be an adept citizen who cares for the environment and to have the technical knowledge and skills to function and contribute effectively to an increasingly technologically driven world.
为配合我校培育“堂正君子 社稷栋梁 ”的愿景，我校的科学课程旨在培养学生的科学思维和态度，从而使他们成为关心环境，且拥有相关知识和技能的公民，以助于他们在日益以科技为主导的世界里有效地工作和做出贡献。
Science Curriculum Framework
The Science curriculum framework was derived from Ministry of Education’s Policy Framework for the teaching and learning of Science which seeks to inculcate and nurture the spirit of inquiry and curiosity. The curriculum is delivered in the three domains – knowledge, understanding and application; skills and processes; ethics and attitudes – which support the curriculum framework. The programme strives to provide students with learning experiences which allow them to apply knowledge and draw relationships within various concepts in science, through written assignments or laboratory practical sessions, and science research work. In particular, the school also emphasizes the inculcation of social, emotional values and sense of national responsibility. There are opportunities in every scientific topic to address the affective domain in accordance with the school learning outcomes, such as showing sensitivity, compassion, being reflective, able to learn independently and work collaboratively, and ability to articulate views. In addition, the framework aims to establish relevance and relationship,via Science in Daily Life, Science in Society, and Science in the Environment.
Objectives of the Science programme
The Science Programme aims to enable students to
- develop the interest in matters of scientific importance
- be able to recognise the usefulness and limitations of scientific methods
- appreciate scientific applications in other disciplines and in one’s everyday life
- develop abilities and skills in the study and practice of science
- develop attitudes relevant to the study and practice of science.
A Differentiated Curriculum
The Science curriculum is differentiated in content, process, product and learning environment to cater to the varied and diversified needs of these students. Students will maximise their potential in the Sciences by pursuing a challenging and differentiated curriculum which will accelerate their learning experiences and develop them into independent learners and effective team workers.
Content enrichment extends the syllabus beyond the basic syllabus in depth and breadth. It caters more to individual needs and interests. It integrates different subject areas/disciplines and affective issues so as to encourage the investigation of real-life problems. Process enrichment seeks to develop higher level thinking skills. This is achieved by providing opportunities for discovery learning and open-ended problem solving, teaching research skills for independent study, and using varied teaching strategies to cater to different learning styles. Students will consistently utilize critical and creative thinking skills to seek original solutions to real-world problems. It will also develop pupils’ understanding of the ethical and moral implications of social and scientific developments. Product differentiation encourages the presentation of what has been learnt in a variety of ways thereby providing space for creative expressions.
Science Enrichment Modules for School-Based Gifted Education (SBGE)
Dunman High adopts the former Gifted Education Programme Enrichment Model to differentiate programme from the mainstream. Enrichment modules aim at providing a better quality of learning or appropriate instruction for students which cannot be fully provided for within the regular classes. The school practices the grouping of students with similar high ability, aptitude and talent in SBGE classes. Students are selected to be in the SBGE classes based on their academic performance, participation and achievement in above-level science-based programmes and competitions and teachers’ recommendation.
The curriculum at Junior High (Year 1 to 4) covers topics which help lay a strong foundation for students to take up science subjects offered at the Senior High (Year 5 & 6) years. At Year 3 and 4, students would be offered Chemistry and the choice of another one or two sciences from Biology and Physics. At Senior High, the three Sciences are offered to students at H1, H2 and H3 levels.
Biology is a scientific study of life. The study of biology opens up a vast world wonders, which allows us to understand ourselves better in terms of how the different systems in the body work together for our daily activities. Biology never ceases to amaze people especially how there can be such a huge diversity in living things with only a slight change in DNA. Moreover, all these life forms arose from simple cells truly makes Biology a subject which everyone can never get bored with. It is important for everyone to make an informed decision in response to biological emergencies and to question the ethical issues of medical advancement. In Dunman High, Life Sciences is incorporated into the Year 1 to 4 curriculum through laboratory work and work attachment. Students when equipped with the relevant knowledge will be able to appreciate the current global issues and make good choices in contribution to the global needs. The study of Biology opens up to students a vast realm of potential careers.
At Senior High, H1 Biology provides fundamental knowledge to students and equips them with scientific skills and abilities relevant to the study and practice of biological sciences. While the content is reduced as compared to H2 Biology, the rigor remains the same. Students taking H1 Biology would be able to appreciate the new knowledge contributed to the field through recent developments at the cellular or molecular level.
H2 Biology prepares students adequately for studying Biology and Biology-related subjects at the university. Students would be given opportunities to learn how life works beyond the cellular level at the molecular level and understand news reports and articles of research and industry developments in biological sciences, also to identify their social, ethical and legal implications. Given the exposures, students would be able to develop informed opinions in these areas and present their views coherently and confidently. In line with the rapid advancement in biological sciences, students would be equipped with refined and updated information to keep up with the relevant knowledge in preparation for their participation in a technologically-driven economy and appreciate wide variety of career possibilities in the emerging biological sciences.
Proteomics is a MOE-H3 Biology course which aims to integrate knowledge in Biology and Chemistry in the study of the chemistry of proteins and seeks to stimulate and challenge students who want to pursue molecular biology in greater depth.
Chemistry is the central science that shares connections in many diverse subjects. It provides an important understanding of our world through the study of matter and its transformation. It can thus serve as a common language to communicate with people from both within or outside the discipline, locally and globally.
Studying Chemistry enables the students to observe how chemistry principles operate in all aspects of their lives and hence appreciate its significance. It also puts students in a good position to choose from a wide variety of useful and rewarding careers.
The knowledge and understanding of chemical facts and concepts can enable students to become educated and informed citizens who will make sound choices in matters of public concern such as healthcare and environment protection. The knowledge of chemicals, chemical technologies and processes will also pave the way for discovering new solutions to problems in health, materials, climate change, energy usage among many others.
At Senior High, H1 Chemistry provides students with an understanding of basic Chemistry principles and equips them to apply the principles in solving problems. Students will acquire fundamental knowledge in physical chemistry, organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry while H2 Chemistry prepares students to study Chemistry and Chemistry-related subjects at the university level. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, a MOE-H3 Chemistry course, offers students an opportunity to delve into drug chemistry.
Physics is the study of the laws that govern physical phenomena and interactions in our universe. By studying the subject, students can understand the basic rules of the behaviour of matter and energy on every scale: from the interaction of subatomic particles to the motion of everyday objects.
Many of the technologies that we are reliant on today can be traced back to important Physics knowledge. Through learning the subject, students can play a part in the development of new important technologies and transform the world we live in.
At Senior High, H1 Physics provides students with basic knowledge of Physics and the application of physics in the real world. Through the course, students will acquire an understanding of the basic physics principles and use these principles to solve problems. Although students offering H1 Physics are not assessed on their practical skills, opportunities would still be provided to engage them in practical work in the curriculum to support the learning of the subject.
H2 Physics provides the basis for students planning to specialize in Physics or Engineering in the universities. Students will develop a thorough understanding of important physics principles and practical skills and use them to solve a wide range of problems. New areas of knowledge and basic fundamental concepts that form the basis for some of today’s technological developments are covered.
Students who have the passion and aptitude for the respective Science subject can choose to pursue it at H3 level, either as research-based or course modules offered by MOE or NTU.
Essentials of Modern Physics, a MOE-H3 Physics course, provide students with an introduction and understanding of some specialized advanced topics in Modern Physics.
Research-based H3 Science is offered under the auspices of Science-Research programme (SRP) and Nanyang Research Programme (NRP).
The topics for each science subject offered at the respective levels are shown in the following:
Year 1 & 2 Lower Secondary Science
|Biology module||Chemistry module||Physics module|
Year 3 & 4 Biology, Chemistry and Physics
Year 5 & 6 Biology, Chemistry, Physics
|H2 Biology||H2 Chemistry||H2 Physics|
*H1 topics including Redox Reactions
本课程比一般更 深广，也更能迎合不同的学习需求和兴趣。与此同时，它也鼓励学生运用不同领域的知识和生活体验为现实世界中的一些问题进行研究。本院在教学过程中对培养高 层次的思维技巧特别重视。课程不但鼓励学生探索学习和在开放式的问题中自寻答案，也同时为他们提供了学习研究技巧的机会以供自主学习。不同的教学策略也满足了不同的学习风格。学生将能运用批判性和创造性的思维来解决一些真实的科学问题，也在过程中明白社会与科学发展所牵涉的伦理和道德问题。本院最后也通过不同的方法让学生以具创意性的 方式来发表所学。
在高中，H1物理学让学生学习基本的物理概念和应用知识。通过本课程，学生将能提升对物理理论的认识和解答问题的能力。虽然H1学生不必上实验课，但本院仍 会安排他们接受这方面的实践，以巩固学习。H2物理学专为准备在大学修读物理或工程的学生而设。学生将对一些重要的物理原理和实践技能做更全面的学习，并 利用它们来解答各类相关问题。此课程内容也包涵了促进当今科技发展的一些新获知识与其他基础原理。
|H2 生物学||H2 化学||H2 物理学|
Differentiated teaching and learning approach
The Science programme tailors teaching environments and practices to cater to different learning experiences for our students. It is delivered to enable students to acquire the 21stcentury competencies (writing, media literacy, information and communication, civic-mindedness, critical and inventive thinking, global awareness, ethics). To promote and facilitate enduring understandings of fundamental concepts, three overarching themes run through the 6-year DHP Programme:
- World (i.e. encourages the investigation of real-life and world issues)
The key themes of individual, community & the world
- enable learners to discover the value and relevance of the various disciplines in the 21stcentury world and
- help the learners to derive the Enduring Understandings.
Teachers are guided by the essential question:
What do we want students to understand and be able to use several years from now, after they have forgotten the details? (Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe)
Teachers adopt the following approaches to Teaching and Learning:
- Student-centred spiral approach
- Use of ICT (e.g. CD-roms, websites, in-house videos, etc.)
- Inquiry-based Instruction (5E Instructional Model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend and Evaluate) in planning lessons and teaching packages
- Infusion of essential dimensions of Critical Thinking developed by Dr. Richard Paul and his colleagues at the Foundation for Critical Thinking into lesson planning, lesson delivery and assignments.
- Instruction to bring awareness to issues linked to the science in everyday life, the contribution and role of science to mankind, and global implications such as environmental or ethical issues.
Teachers are equipped with a repertoire of teaching strategies to cater to different needs of students in the learning process. Examples of the different teaching pedagogies used include:
- Teacher directed learning that promotes critical thinking and problem-solving skills
- Discussion using Socratic Questioning, Inference or Deductive strategies, etc., to draw out key understanding, Peer evaluation, Peer Coaching
- Guided-inquiry used in teaching of certain topics
- Varying levels of guidance in group discussions
- Oral Presentation
- Peer Teaching, Cooperative Learning
- Create mind map of topics
- Use of games for learning
Use of ICT in teaching and learning
- To enhance presentations and deepen learning for students To enhance presentations and deepen learning for students, e.g. using powerpoint to present and deliver lessons; using IT to animate reactions and processes, videos to bring the relevance, contribution and impact of science closer to students
- To monitor students’ independent learning through posting of online quizzes for self-study topics and analyzing general areas of weakness or areas of misconception for the topics
- Use of wiki pages on topic for collaborative learning
- Virtual Learning Labs
- Promoting independent learning of topics from available resources
- Provision of e-learning and online resources for self-study topics.
Laboratory Practical sessions:
- Sessions are usually student-centred and focus on experiential learning. Hands-on approach is adopted and practical sessions will include data collection, data analysis, and application of knowledge to make predictions and recommendations
- Incorporating the use of dataloggers and demonstration set-ups
- In-house life sciences enrichment modules with hands-on experiences in the laboratories
- Provide opportunities to support the learning of concepts
Group work: Collaborative learning
- Varying levels of teacher guidance in group work
- Grouping of students based on their strengths to complement one another
- To train students’ teamwork abilities, communication and presentation skills
Science Research Projects (Talent Development Programme)
- Sessions on basic science research skills & the use of investigative research skills to complete a science research project related to current scientific and environmental problems.
- Conducted at individual or small group consultations to cater to individual learning needs
Our content coverage extends beyond the basic syllabus in depth and breadth. By integrating out-of-class experiences and different subject disciplines in our programme, it encourages the investigation of real-life problems. Opportunities are created for discovery learning and open-ended problem solving to enable them to develop higher level thinking skills in our six-year course. These activities include:
Selected fieldtrips/workshops/courses/ Electives (based on Renzulli Enrichment Triad Model)
Out-of-classroom learning experiences and extensions are planned and conducted to provide
- Enrichment for the whole level. g. Fieldtrips
- Interest-based Elective courses
- Ability-based Electives such as Junior Chemistry and Physics Olympiad training.
Selected contests and competitions
Our students are active participants of:
- International Competition & Assessment for Science (ICAS)
- Local, national or international competitions that “enable interaction, competition, and cooperation with gifted peers under conditions which push individuals to perform at their best.” e.g. National Science Challenge, Singapore Junior Chemistry Olympiad, Singapore Junior Physics Olympiad, Science Olympiads, East Zone A-STAR Science Fair, Singapore Science and Engineering Fair (SSEF), International Science Fair (e.g. Taiwan International Science Fair).
Dunman High Research Programme (DHRP) – independent study and research
All Lower Secondary students will be exposed to the teaching and learning of basic research skills (such as crafting research questions, research methodology and oral presentation). Students are given the opportunity to work in interest-based groups in their selected choice of project that anchors on or is related to a particular subject discipline (e.g. Science-based).
Year 3 and 4 students will have the opportunity to embark on Science Research. The Science Mentorship Research Programme (SMP) under external agencies such as Agency of Science, Technology And Research, coordinated by the Gifted Education Branch, and School-Based Research Programmes under industry partners, provides scientific research experience for more students.
While students at Senior High continue to be involved in school-based research programmes, there are also opportunities for research attachments overseas (under the MOE Overseas Student Attachment Programme) and locally at the universities and research institutes (under the MOE Local Student Attachment Programme or MOE Science Research Programme or NTU Nanyang Research Programme).
“即使学生在多年后已忘了细节，我们希望他们还能理解与应用到怎样的知识？”（Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe）
- 使用信息和通讯技术（如CD- ROM光盘，网站，视频录像等）
- 通过PowerPoint; 数码动画，影像视频等管道更有效的传达信息和帮助学生学习，
精心挑选的实地考察/工作坊/课程/选修课（按Renzulli Enrichment Triad模型）
- 能促进与其他优秀生互动、竞赛和合作的校内，国家或国际比赛，帮助学生发挥潜能，例如国家科学挑战，新加坡初中化学与物理奥林匹克竞赛，东区A – STAR科学展，新加坡科学与工程展，国际科学展（例如台湾国际科学展）等
所有初中生都将接触基本的研究技巧（例如编写研究问题和学习研究方式和口述报告等）。他们也将依兴趣分组进行以一项特定学科（如科学）为主体的研究作业。 中三和四年级的学生还将有机会参与科学研究计划。由教育部高才教育处统筹、ASTAR主导的科学专人导研计划，和与校外伙伴合作的校内科研活动，为学生提供了更多的科研机会。高中部学生的活动虽然以校内科研为主，但他们也有机会参加海外和本地大学 和研究院所举办的相关活动。
The assessment complements the Teaching and Learning practices to provide both teachers and students timely and accurate information of the extent of learning, understanding of concepts and mastery of skills.
In addition, assessment is also planned to assess affective domains of students, and can be differentiated to provide opportunities for students of high ability to be stretched.
- Written Topical Assignments (*include challenging questions for students of high ability)
- Written Topical Common Tests (*include challenging questions for students of high ability)
- Written Pop Quizzes
Besides individual written assignments and common tests, assessment also comes in the form of authentic performance tasks (in groups or as an individual) that mirror real-world issues & problem solving & real world applications. Designing assessment tasks which demands from students to display a variety of products and demonstrate a repertoire of skills can thus allows students to develop 21st century competencies and be competent in them.
The products and/or skills which we expect students to present or demonstrate include:
- Science Article Review/Article Critique on newspaper articles and science journals
- Journal writing
- Abstract Writing-Students are to write abstract for a given scientific journal
- Authentic Learning tasks (Group report) e.g. Acid Spill Problem-Based Learning
- Problem-solving task e.g. Physics Product
- Science Investigative Project – Group presentation and report
- Laboratory practical work assessment e.g. observation tests (including peer evaluation)
- Oral Presentation of group project
- Planning a written experimental design
Assessments are also designed to leverage on the use of ICT. These include:
- use of dataloggers
- online learning resources and online quizzes for individual’s summative performance assessment
- Internet Research, powerpoint presentation and wikipage
Assessments that assess affective domain
- Peer evaluation
- Work attitudes
- Daily work
With Dunman High being a school that offers Integrated Programme, we can fully explore the advantage of building up the skills in Sciences throughout the six-year programme. There is a spiral building up of skills from Year 1 to Year 6. The Integrated Programme allows us to have holistic and comprehensive programme in the teaching and learning of Sciences. Our talented students explore research projects and participate in national competitions that require knowledge in the sciences. As they progress to Senior High, they have opportunities to organize competitions and camps for their juniors. Through these events, the Senior High students apply the knowledge built throughout their Junior High years to plan and implement tasks and activities that demonstrate their ability to incorporate knowledge from the science discipline.